What Machines Need Procedures?

Filed under Expert Tips, Resources
Procedures shall be developed, documented and utilized for the control of potentially hazardous energy..." - OSHA's Criteria

In addition to the typical production and packaging equipment, some examples of other equipment types that require procedures.


OSHA’s 8 CRITERIA

OSHA defines 8 required criteria in order for a piece of equipment to not need a machine-specific lockout-tagout procedure:

Below is an excerpt taken directly from OSHA’s website: www.osha.gov.

Energy control procedure. 1910.147(c)(4)(i)

Procedures shall be developed, documented and utilized for the control of potentially hazardous energy when employees are engaged in the activities covered by this section. Note: Exception: The employer need not document the required procedure for a particular machine or equipment, when all of the following elements exist:

(1) The machine or equipment has no potential for stored or residual energy or reaccumulation of stored energy after shut down which could endanger employees;

(2) the machine or equipment has a single energy source which can be readily identified and isolated;

(3) the isolation and locking out of that energy source will completely deenergize and deactivate the machine or equipment;

(4) the machine or equipment is isolated from that energy source and locked out during servicing or maintenance;

(5) a single lockout device will achieve a locker-out condition;

(6) the lockout device is under the exclusive control of the authorized employee performing the servicing or maintenance;

(7) the servicing or maintenance does not create hazards for other employees; and

(8) the employer, in utilizing this exception, has had no accidents involving the unexpected activation or reenergization of the machine or equipment during servicing or maintenance.

IMPORTANT NOTE: ALL eight criteria must be met in order to be exempt from requiring a machine specific procedure.


  Equipment Types:
• Exhaust Fans
• Air Handler Units
• Unit Heaters

Reason/Logic:
This style of equipment requires a procedure because it has electrical and kinetic energy. This particular equipment setup also does not have a local electrical disconnect (criteria 2) that can be readily identified and isolated.

This equipment type typically does not meet criteria numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, and possibly 4, 6, and 7.


Equipment Types:
• Clothing Washer
• Dishwasher

Reason/Logic:
This style of equipment requires a procedure because it has electrical and water. Because of these two sources, it does not
meet criteria numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, and possibly 4, 6, and 7.

In this example pictured, the washer has electricity, hot water, and two cold water inlets in addition to thermal energy. It has five sources total, but OSHA requires anything over two sources have a machine specific procedure.


Equipment Types:
• Grinders
• Mills
• Lathes
• Drill Press

Reason/Logic:
This style of equipment requires a procedure because it has electrical and kinetic energy. Because of these two sources, it does not meet criteria numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, and possibly 4, 6, and 7.

Even though the picture shows one of the simplest pieces of shop equipment, OSHA requires a lockout/tagout procedure due to the residual energy from the grinding disks.


Equipment Types:
• Welders
• Plasma Cutters
• Gas Cutter

Reason/Logic:
This style of equipment requires a procedure because it has electrical, gas, and thermal. Because of these three sources, it does not meet criteria numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, and possibly 4, 6, and 7.

Welders are often overlooked when companies are assessing their LOTO compliancy; this can lead to a separate OSHA citation for each unit that does not have a specific procedure.


Equipment Types:
• Boiler Systems
• Condensate Return Tanks
• Condensate Pumps

Reason/Logic:
This style of equipment requires a procedure because it has electrical, water, steam, natural gas and/or fuel oil, thermal energy and kinetic energy. Because of the multiple energy sources, it does not meet criteria numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, and possibly 4, 6, and 7.

Boilers can use electrical, gas, or fuel oil to change water into high pressure steam. Boiler systems
need procedures due to the inherent hazards of such high temperatures and pressures. A proper lockout/tagout procedure for a boiler will completely isolate all incoming sources, identify and address any internal heat and pressure, and address the steam output valves so no feedback from the other boilers could possibly occur.

Due to the high heat and high pressure, any steam condensate tank or pump will also need a written lockout/tagout procedure.


Equipment Types:
• Chiller Systems
• Cooling Towers

Reason/Logic:
This style of equipment requires a procedure because they contain electrical energy, chilled water lines, glycol lines and kinetic energy from fan blades. Because of the multiple of energy sources, it does not meet criteria numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, and possibly 4, 6, and 7.

Depending on the chiller system it may also contain a refrigeration loop. The complexity of the chiller systems’ and cooling towers’ water system results in having to lockout multiple valves. A detailed lockout procedure assists in the safe maintenance and repair of these systems.


Equipment Types:
• Supply Pumps
• Return Pumps
• Booster Pumps

Reason/Logic:
This style of equipment requires a procedure because it has electrical and water/product/chemical liquids. Because of these three sources, it does not meet criteria numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, and possibly 4, 6, and 7.

All types of pumps required lockout-tagout procedures so safe preventative maintenance or repairs can be conducted. In addition to the electrical isolation, the suction and discharge of each pump needs to be locked out. The fluids that are being transported by the pump (hot water or chemicals) may be hazardous to the mechanic.

Proper lockout of the suction and discharge lines can prevent property damage from occurring if the lines remained open while another machine introduces pressurized fluid into the system.

Download a pdf of the criteria here.  Contact us today to learn more.

About ESC Services
ESC Services, a Rockwell Automation brand, is a leader in lockout/tagout procedures. Our services include many aspects of employee safety and OSHA compliance, and our core focus is delivering custom comprehensive lockout/tagout service that yields intuitive graphical lockout/tagout procedures and modern methodology. Learn more about ESC Services here.